Sources & Resources
Listed here are quality general resources on logical fallacies, as well as sources of information used in the Fallacy Files. Specific sources and resources on individual fallacies will be found at the end of the particular file for each fallacy. If you know of any good resources which are not listed here but should be, or there is a broken link to a resource, please let me know.
By Dr. Michael C. Labossiere. Based on a Macintosh tutorial, it provides short explanations of 42 fallacies, with multiple cooked-up examples. A reliable source, hosted by the Nizkor Project. Also see the PDF version in the "Books" section, below.
From Charles Ess, a professor of religion and philosophy, comes this collection of 28 files on standard fallacies. It is based on his A Database of Informal Fallacies (1987), and consists mainly of examples, though some of the files are empty. Despite the title, there are a few formal fallacies covered. Also, since most of the files on individual fallacies contain no or little explanatory matter, this is not the best place to start out studying the fallacies. Complicating the situation even further is the fact that some nonfallacious examples are included, along with a "fallacy" which is no such thing, with no indication of which are supposed to be fallacious and which not. So, these files would seem to be of most use to someone wanting to test their understanding on a number of examples, with some ringers thrown in. Disappointingly, most of the examples are anecdotal, reconstructed from memory, or invented: there are few direct quotations, and no citations to allow one to examine the examples in their own words in context.
By Walter Jerusalinsky. En espaņol.
By Dr. Michael C. Labossiere. Labossiere's work translated into Italian.
The weblog that accompanies this website, it includes examples taken from the media and current events, as well as puzzles, paradoxes, book reviews, and links and pointers to articles and books of current interest.
An excellent weblog by Lee Archie, who is a philosopher at Lander University. The entries are concerned mainly with fallacies and related informal logic topics. Sporadically updated, but highly recommended.
Tim van Gelder's fallacies category in his guide to quality critical thinking resources on the web. Some overlap with this list, but also some differences which may help to give the reader a different perspective. Unfortunately, it hasn't been updated for many years.
The Open Directory category on informal logic, which I formerly edited, has links to quality sites covering logical fallacies, as well as other informal logic topics. This category is currently in need of a volunteer editor.
Fallacies can be fun and funny! Cases in point:
- Dave Barry, "How to Argue Effectively" (PDF)
Let me put it this way. In terms of arguments vis-a-vis winning, this article will tell you how to do so more often, on any topic qua topic, against any opponent, so to speak.
- James W. Benham & Thomas J. Marlowe, "Logical Fallacies"
A unique collection of examples.
- Voros McCracken, "Change the Subject, and Change Your Life"
How to argue about baseball; or, rather, how not to argue about baseball. Also useful for not arguing about other topics.
- Max Shulman, "Love is a Fallacy"
Dobie Gillis is hoist on his own logical petard.
By Bradley Dowden. An article from the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, written by one of the two editors of that reference work. Consists of a short introductory discussion of the scholarly controversies over fallacies, followed by a long list of named fallacies. There are 164 names of fallacies, though many of the fallacies have multiple names. I count 103 fallacies with substantive entries, though necessarily each entry is brief since the entire article is one long webpage! Unfortunately, the examples given are either short cooked-up ones, or the typical textbook chestnuts. If you can't find a fallacy listed in the Fallacy Files, this would be the most likely place to find a short but sound explanation of it on the web.
By Joe Miller, Annenberg Classroom Fact Check. A good lesson plan on logical fallacies from the same people who fact check the politicians, with some interesting examples taken from advertisements. (PDF format)
Mini-courses are short, online courses. The Clearer Thinking organization's Decision Academy offers free mini-courses on "Rhetorical Fallacies", "Probabilistic Fallacies", "The Planning Fallacy"―which I don't think is a logical fallacy―and "The Sunk Cost Fallacy"―which I'm often asked about―and some related ones on improving decision-making.
By Michael C. Labossiere. This is the same work as that listed above under "Web Sites", but in PDF format.
Reviews of books on logical fallacies, informal logic, critical thinking, cognitive illusions, and related subjects.
Compiled by Hans V. Hansen, and originally published in Fallacies: Classical and Contemporary Readings, edited by Hans V. Hansen and Robert C. Pinto (1995), pp. 339-348.
Acknowledgments: Thanks to C. Leonhardt, Aislinn Pluta, Vance Ricks, Paul Sobolik, and Alfred Uhl.